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Percona for MongoDB上手

简述

Percona for Mongodb是一个免费开源完全兼容的,可直接替代具有企业版功能的MongoDB版本,提供以下功能:

  • MongoDB的MMAPv1存储引擎和默认的WiredTiger引擎
  • 可选的Percona Memory Engine和MongoRocks存储引擎
  • 使用OpenLDAP活AD进行外部SASL身份认证
  • 审核日志记录以跟踪和查询用户或应用程序的数据库交互
  • 默认WiredTiger和备用的MongoRocks存储引擎的热备份
  • 分析率可降低分析器对性能的影响

功能比较

\ PSMDB MongoDB TokuMX
Storage Engines WiredTiger (default) / Percona Memory Engine WiredTige(default) / In-Memory (Enterprise only) Built-in storage engine based on the Fractal Tree index
Hot Backup YES for WiredTiger NO YES
Audit Logging YES Enterprise only YES
External SASL Authentication YES Enterprise only NO
Profiling Rate Limit YES YES [1] NO
Geospatial Indexes YES YES YES
Text Search YES YES NO
ACID and MVCC compliant NO NO YES
Clustering Key Support NO NO YES
Sharding with Clustering Keys NO NO YES
Point-in-time Recovery NO Enterprise only YES

实例安装

包装清单

  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34:安装mongo shell,导入/导出工具,其它客户端实用程序,服务器软件,默认配置init.d脚本
  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-server:包含mongod服务器,默认配置文件和init.d脚本
  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-shell:包含mongoshell
  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-mongos:包含分片mongos群集查询路由器
  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-tools:包含来自Percona的高性能MongoDB fork的Mongo工具
  • Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-debuginfo:包含服务器的调试

安装server和shell

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$ rpm -ivh Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-shell-3.4.18-2.16.el6.x86_64.rpm
$ rpm -ivh Percona-Server-MongoDB-34-server-3.4.18-2.16.el6.x86_64.rpm

编辑参数文件

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storage:
    dbPath: /mongodb/data
    journal:
        enabled: true
    engine: wiredTiger

systemLog:
    destination: file
    logAppend: true
    path: /mongodb/log/mongod.log

processManagement:
    fork: true
    pidFilePath: /mongodb/data/mongod.pid

net:
    port: 27017
    bindIp: all

创建管理员

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test> use admin
switched to db admin
admin> db.createUser({user: 'root', pwd: 'Abcd123#', roles: ['root'] });
Successfully added user: { "user" : "root", "roles" : [ "root" ] }

启用认证登陆

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security:
    authorization: enabled

重启实例

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$ service mongod restart

Hot Backup

Percona MongoDB 3.2开始默认支持WiredTiger引擎在线热备份,需要管理员权限在admin数据库下执行createBackup,并指定备份目录

备份恢复原理
备份原理:

  • 首先启动一个后台检测的进程,实时检测MongoDB Oplog的变化,将新产生的日志写入到日志文件WiredTiger.backup中
  • 复制MongoDB dbpath目录到指定的备份目录中

恢复原理:

  • 将WiredTiger.backup日志进行回放,将操作日志应用到WiredTiger引擎里,最终得到一致性快照恢复
  • 把备份目录里的数据文件直接拷贝到dbpath下,然后启动MongoDB

PHP备份脚本
安装依赖

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yum install -y php-pear php-devel php gcc openssl openssl-devel cyrus-sasl cyrus-sasl-devel

安装php-mongo驱动Download

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$ tar -xvf mongo-1.6.16.tar
$ cd mongo-1.6.16
$ phpize
$ ./configure
$ make && make install -j 4

在php.ini中加入extension=mongo.so

创建PHP脚本

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<?php

ini_set('date.timezone','Asia/Shanghai');
error_reporting(7);

$user = "root";
$pwd = 'Abcd123#';
$host = '127.0.0.1';
$port = '27017';
$authdb = 'admin';
$BAKDIR = "/data/bak/";
$BAKDIR .= date('Y_m_d_H_i_s');


$m = new MongoBak($user,$pwd,$host,$port,$authdb,$BAKDIR);

Class MongoBak{

function __construct(){
$a = func_get_args();
$f = 'backup';
call_user_func_array(array($this,$f),$a);
}

function backup($p1,$p2,$p3,$p4,$p5,$p6){
$this->mkdirs("{$p6}");
$mongo = new MongoClient("mongodb://{$p1}:{$p2}@{$p3}:{$p4}/{$p5}");
# $mongo->setReadPreference(MongoClient::RP_SECONDARY);
$db = $mongo->admin;
echo "\n".date('Y-m-d H:i:s')." backup is running......\n";
$r = $db->command(
array(
'createBackup' => 1,
'backupDir' => $p6),
array('timeout' => -1)
);

//print_r($r);

if($r['ok'] == 1){
echo date('Y-m-d H:i:s')." backup is success.\n";
} else{
echo date('Y-m-d_H:i:s')." backup is failure.\n";
}
}

function mkdirs($dir, $mode = 0777){
if (!is_dir($dir)){
mkdir($dir, $mode, true);
chmod($dir, $mode);
echo "BackupDir : ${dir} is created.\n";
}
}

}

?>

注意:该脚本在PHP7下无效

执行备份

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$ php pmongo_backup.sh

恢复数据库
恢复时只需将备份文件覆盖到数据目录下启动即可